Bessemer Mounds, Jefferson County, Alabama,  2017
       
     
  Garrett Cemetery, Cherokee County, Alabama,  2017  Outside the gates of the Garrett Cemetery is the final resting place of Pathkiller, the last King and full-blooded hereditary chief of the Cherokee.
       
     
  Old Cahawba, Dallas County, Alabama,  2017.  For millennia people have been drawn to the land situated at the confluence of the Cahaba and Alabama rivers. It was first occupied by large populations of Paleoindians; then from 1000-1500 the Mississippian period brought agriculture and mound builders. A walled city with palisades greeted Spanish explorers before western disease killed thousands in the 16th and 17th centuries. The remaining native peoples coalesced into four tribal nations - Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek - but were wiped out and forced to move by greater influx of Europeans. By the 19th century the dirt from the ancient mounds at Cahawba was used to build railroad beds, and the town became the first, yet quickly failed, capital of Alabama. A few short years later buildings and homes were taken down brick by brick and used to build Selma, home to further injustice.
       
     
  Hollowed cedar tree at the entrance of Manitou Cave, outside of Fort Payne, Alabama, formerly Willstown, a Chickamauga settlement of the Cherokee nation,  2017  Many Native American tribes attribute special spiritual significance to cedar tree, calling it the “Tree of Life” or “Holy Tree.” In particular, the Cherokee, who inhabited Manitou (an Ojibwa word meaning, “spirit") and the surrounding area, believed that cedar trees held the spirits of deceased ancestors and therefore possessed the power of protection.   Inside Manitou traces of human activity date back 10,000 years, including inscriptions from the Cherokee syllabary, invented by Sequoyah while he lived in Willstown. After the Cherokee removal on the Trail of Tears the cave was used as a Confederate encampment and saltpeter mine; in the 1920s it was converted into a tourist destination where flappers danced the Charleston in a "ballroom" that featured electric lights; and during the Cold War it was outfitted as a fallout shelter. After decades of neglect the cave is the focus of grassroots historical and environmental protection and in 2016 was listed by the Alabama Trust for Historic Preservation as one of the state's "places of peril."   
  
 
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  Ohatchee, Calhoun County, Alabama,  2017  Near this spot a marker stands memorializing the place where General Andrew Jackson found and adopted an orphaned Muskogee Creek baby in Nov. 1813. The story recounts how the baby was found in his dead mother's arms and Jackson had such compassion that he took the child and raised him as his own. What the marker does not report is that it was also near this location that Jackson's Tennessee militia began their genocide of the Muskogee Creek Red Sticks. The day before Jackson found the child, his forces trapped hundreds Creeks - men, women and children - inside their log homes and burned them alive. In his memoirs, Tennessee Volunteer Davy Crocket wrote that the few Creek who escaped were "shot down like dogs."
       
     
  Bessemer Mounds, Jefferson County, Alabama,  2017  The Bessemer Mounds were first occupied during the Late Woodland Period between 800-1000AD. While the mounds are approximately 400 years older than those found 75 miles southeast in Moundville, archeologists believe there was a relationship between the mound builders. The mounds were leveled sometime in the 1900's; a water sewage plant and VisionLand, a defunct theme park, are now located on the site.
       
     
  Cahaba River, Dallas County, Alabama,  2017.
       
     
  Coosa River, Cherokee County, Alabama,  2017.  Near this point in the Coosa River, Pathkiller, the last King and full-blooded hereditary chief of the Cherokee, operated a ferry during the 19th century. After Pathkiller became too old to operate the ferry he spent his final days on the banks of the river, watching the water and river boats pass by. He was buried on the bluffs overlooking the Coosa, his body laid to rest facing the river.
       
     
  Near DeSoto Falls, DeKalb County, Alabama,  2017  In June 1570, a small scouting group from DeSoto's army of conquistadors made their way up Lookout Mountain to what is today known as DeSoto Falls, where they camped for at least two days searched the area for gold and precious stones.
       
     
  Site of Turkeytown, Cherokee County, Alabama, 2017   Established some time prior to 1770, Turkeytown was one of the most important Cherokee cities in the region. Following his victory over the Muscogee Creek, General Andrew Jackson visited his Cherokee allies at Turkeytown in 1816 for a Council of the Cherokee, Creek, and Chickasaw to negotiate boundaries and ratify a peace treaty as Alabama opened to white settlers. At the council the Cherokee ceded a large portion of their ancestral lands in north-central Alabama to the US government and agreed to the building of roads throughout their domain, including construction of the Alabama Road over the ancient hunting and trading paths that once ran east to Rome, Georgia. Soon after the treaty the Eastern Woodland native Americans were forced west on the Trail of Tears.
       
     
  Moundville, Hale County, Alabama,  2017  Moundville was the political and ceremonial center of a Mississippian chiefdom on the Black Warrior River in west Alabama between the 11th and 15th centuries. More than 10,000 people lived at and around the massive 300 acre site, which featured more than 30 earth mounds used for civic and religious purposes, with the layout of the mounds likely placed in cosmological symbolic order and regarded by Mississippian peoples as the doorway to the afterlife. While the site stood as the second largest city in North America for generations, it was mysteriously abandoned by the time Europeans began exploring the area in the 16th century.
       
     
  Ten Islands, St. Claire County, Alabama,  2017  In July of 1540 DeSoto and his men forded the Coosa River near this point, moving from the Native American city of Coste to nearby Tali. In tow were native slaves, forced to accompany the Spaniards and carry their supplies. Some 250 years after DeSoto's visit, the site became home to General Andrew Jackson's Fort Strother, from which he began his campaign against Red Stick Muskogee Creeks during the Creek wars in 1812. In this photograph, divergent paths lead to ruins of a river lock, which when constructed in the 1880's opened an additional 25 miles of the Coosa to commercial shipping. Today the river and nearby land is controlled by the Alabama Power Co. Area locals report that buckets full of points and stone tools can be drudged from the river when the water is low.
       
     
  Coosa River, Cherokee County, Alabama, 2017
       
     
  Near Socopatoy, Coosa County, Alabama,  2017  Although Creek Indians retained the territory around what is today known as Socopatoy Creek following the Creek Wars, whites began settling in the area before Alabama achieved statehood. In the early 19th century Socopatoy included a Native American village, frontier fort, and pioneer town. Today the area is empty, as the once thriving town was reduced to a handful of structures in the early 20th century; most remaining structures were razed in 1979 for the rerouting of US Hwy 280.
       
     
  Coosa County, Alabama,  2017  Near the purported home of Choak-Chart-Hadjo, renowned Creek chief known to white settlers as "Redmouth."
       
     
  Tallaseehatchee Creek, Calhoun County, Alabama,  2017
       
     
  Unnamed island on the Coosa River, Cherokee County, Alabama,  2017  Near this site stood the great Native American city of Chiaha, where in 1540 DeSoto stood on the banks of the river and marveled at "the beauty and richness of the land" and was warmly welcomed by a soon to be occupied and enslaved people.   
       
     
  Cherokee Rock Village, Cherokee County, Alabama,  2017  Cherokee Rock Village was home to Native Americans almost continuously from 8000 BC until 1838, when the resident Cherokee and Creek Indians were forcibly removed by the Indian Removal Act. The ancient site was believed to be of religious and ceremonial importance, as it was located along an ancient Native American trail that became a starting point for the Trail of Tears and later a route for white settlers. The trail also was used by both northern and southern troops during the Civil War and is now known as Lookout Mountain Trail.   
       
     
  Tohopeka, Horseshoe Bend National Military Park, Tallapoosa County, Alabama,  2017  At this site of the Red Stick village of Tohopeka, Cherokee and Lower Creek allied with Andrew Jackson swam across the Tallapoosa River, stole Red Stick canoes, and ferried their own warriors to attack and burn the village during the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. The flanking maneuver allowed Jackson to ultimately defeat the Upper Creek, leaving nearly 800 Red Sticks dead and more than 300 women and children captured. Those who fought reported that the Tallapoosa ran red with blood; the battle was the single largest defeat of Native American people in nearly 300 years of conflict with European settlers. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend effectively ended the Creek War and led to the loss of 23 million acres of ancestral Muscogee land. The treaty was dictated by Jackson, who after the Creek War would be promoted to Major General and later become president. His portrait currently hangs over the Resolute Desk in Donald Trump's Oval Office.
       
     
  Bessemer Mounds, Jefferson County, Alabama,  2017
       
     

Bessemer Mounds, Jefferson County, Alabama, 2017

  Garrett Cemetery, Cherokee County, Alabama,  2017  Outside the gates of the Garrett Cemetery is the final resting place of Pathkiller, the last King and full-blooded hereditary chief of the Cherokee.
       
     

Garrett Cemetery, Cherokee County, Alabama, 2017

Outside the gates of the Garrett Cemetery is the final resting place of Pathkiller, the last King and full-blooded hereditary chief of the Cherokee.

  Old Cahawba, Dallas County, Alabama,  2017.  For millennia people have been drawn to the land situated at the confluence of the Cahaba and Alabama rivers. It was first occupied by large populations of Paleoindians; then from 1000-1500 the Mississippian period brought agriculture and mound builders. A walled city with palisades greeted Spanish explorers before western disease killed thousands in the 16th and 17th centuries. The remaining native peoples coalesced into four tribal nations - Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek - but were wiped out and forced to move by greater influx of Europeans. By the 19th century the dirt from the ancient mounds at Cahawba was used to build railroad beds, and the town became the first, yet quickly failed, capital of Alabama. A few short years later buildings and homes were taken down brick by brick and used to build Selma, home to further injustice.
       
     

Old Cahawba, Dallas County, Alabama, 2017.

For millennia people have been drawn to the land situated at the confluence of the Cahaba and Alabama rivers. It was first occupied by large populations of Paleoindians; then from 1000-1500 the Mississippian period brought agriculture and mound builders. A walled city with palisades greeted Spanish explorers before western disease killed thousands in the 16th and 17th centuries. The remaining native peoples coalesced into four tribal nations - Cherokee, Choctaw, Chickasaw, Creek - but were wiped out and forced to move by greater influx of Europeans. By the 19th century the dirt from the ancient mounds at Cahawba was used to build railroad beds, and the town became the first, yet quickly failed, capital of Alabama. A few short years later buildings and homes were taken down brick by brick and used to build Selma, home to further injustice.

  Hollowed cedar tree at the entrance of Manitou Cave, outside of Fort Payne, Alabama, formerly Willstown, a Chickamauga settlement of the Cherokee nation,  2017  Many Native American tribes attribute special spiritual significance to cedar tree, calling it the “Tree of Life” or “Holy Tree.” In particular, the Cherokee, who inhabited Manitou (an Ojibwa word meaning, “spirit") and the surrounding area, believed that cedar trees held the spirits of deceased ancestors and therefore possessed the power of protection.   Inside Manitou traces of human activity date back 10,000 years, including inscriptions from the Cherokee syllabary, invented by Sequoyah while he lived in Willstown. After the Cherokee removal on the Trail of Tears the cave was used as a Confederate encampment and saltpeter mine; in the 1920s it was converted into a tourist destination where flappers danced the Charleston in a "ballroom" that featured electric lights; and during the Cold War it was outfitted as a fallout shelter. After decades of neglect the cave is the focus of grassroots historical and environmental protection and in 2016 was listed by the Alabama Trust for Historic Preservation as one of the state's "places of peril."   
  
 
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Hollowed cedar tree at the entrance of Manitou Cave, outside of Fort Payne, Alabama, formerly Willstown, a Chickamauga settlement of the Cherokee nation, 2017

Many Native American tribes attribute special spiritual significance to cedar tree, calling it the “Tree of Life” or “Holy Tree.” In particular, the Cherokee, who inhabited Manitou (an Ojibwa word meaning, “spirit") and the surrounding area, believed that cedar trees held the spirits of deceased ancestors and therefore possessed the power of protection. 

Inside Manitou traces of human activity date back 10,000 years, including inscriptions from the Cherokee syllabary, invented by Sequoyah while he lived in Willstown. After the Cherokee removal on the Trail of Tears the cave was used as a Confederate encampment and saltpeter mine; in the 1920s it was converted into a tourist destination where flappers danced the Charleston in a "ballroom" that featured electric lights; and during the Cold War it was outfitted as a fallout shelter. After decades of neglect the cave is the focus of grassroots historical and environmental protection and in 2016 was listed by the Alabama Trust for Historic Preservation as one of the state's "places of peril." 

  Ohatchee, Calhoun County, Alabama,  2017  Near this spot a marker stands memorializing the place where General Andrew Jackson found and adopted an orphaned Muskogee Creek baby in Nov. 1813. The story recounts how the baby was found in his dead mother's arms and Jackson had such compassion that he took the child and raised him as his own. What the marker does not report is that it was also near this location that Jackson's Tennessee militia began their genocide of the Muskogee Creek Red Sticks. The day before Jackson found the child, his forces trapped hundreds Creeks - men, women and children - inside their log homes and burned them alive. In his memoirs, Tennessee Volunteer Davy Crocket wrote that the few Creek who escaped were "shot down like dogs."
       
     

Ohatchee, Calhoun County, Alabama, 2017

Near this spot a marker stands memorializing the place where General Andrew Jackson found and adopted an orphaned Muskogee Creek baby in Nov. 1813. The story recounts how the baby was found in his dead mother's arms and Jackson had such compassion that he took the child and raised him as his own. What the marker does not report is that it was also near this location that Jackson's Tennessee militia began their genocide of the Muskogee Creek Red Sticks. The day before Jackson found the child, his forces trapped hundreds Creeks - men, women and children - inside their log homes and burned them alive. In his memoirs, Tennessee Volunteer Davy Crocket wrote that the few Creek who escaped were "shot down like dogs."

  Bessemer Mounds, Jefferson County, Alabama,  2017  The Bessemer Mounds were first occupied during the Late Woodland Period between 800-1000AD. While the mounds are approximately 400 years older than those found 75 miles southeast in Moundville, archeologists believe there was a relationship between the mound builders. The mounds were leveled sometime in the 1900's; a water sewage plant and VisionLand, a defunct theme park, are now located on the site.
       
     

Bessemer Mounds, Jefferson County, Alabama, 2017

The Bessemer Mounds were first occupied during the Late Woodland Period between 800-1000AD. While the mounds are approximately 400 years older than those found 75 miles southeast in Moundville, archeologists believe there was a relationship between the mound builders. The mounds were leveled sometime in the 1900's; a water sewage plant and VisionLand, a defunct theme park, are now located on the site.

  Cahaba River, Dallas County, Alabama,  2017.
       
     

Cahaba River, Dallas County, Alabama, 2017.

  Coosa River, Cherokee County, Alabama,  2017.  Near this point in the Coosa River, Pathkiller, the last King and full-blooded hereditary chief of the Cherokee, operated a ferry during the 19th century. After Pathkiller became too old to operate the ferry he spent his final days on the banks of the river, watching the water and river boats pass by. He was buried on the bluffs overlooking the Coosa, his body laid to rest facing the river.
       
     

Coosa River, Cherokee County, Alabama, 2017.

Near this point in the Coosa River, Pathkiller, the last King and full-blooded hereditary chief of the Cherokee, operated a ferry during the 19th century. After Pathkiller became too old to operate the ferry he spent his final days on the banks of the river, watching the water and river boats pass by. He was buried on the bluffs overlooking the Coosa, his body laid to rest facing the river.

  Near DeSoto Falls, DeKalb County, Alabama,  2017  In June 1570, a small scouting group from DeSoto's army of conquistadors made their way up Lookout Mountain to what is today known as DeSoto Falls, where they camped for at least two days searched the area for gold and precious stones.
       
     

Near DeSoto Falls, DeKalb County, Alabama, 2017

In June 1570, a small scouting group from DeSoto's army of conquistadors made their way up Lookout Mountain to what is today known as DeSoto Falls, where they camped for at least two days searched the area for gold and precious stones.

  Site of Turkeytown, Cherokee County, Alabama, 2017   Established some time prior to 1770, Turkeytown was one of the most important Cherokee cities in the region. Following his victory over the Muscogee Creek, General Andrew Jackson visited his Cherokee allies at Turkeytown in 1816 for a Council of the Cherokee, Creek, and Chickasaw to negotiate boundaries and ratify a peace treaty as Alabama opened to white settlers. At the council the Cherokee ceded a large portion of their ancestral lands in north-central Alabama to the US government and agreed to the building of roads throughout their domain, including construction of the Alabama Road over the ancient hunting and trading paths that once ran east to Rome, Georgia. Soon after the treaty the Eastern Woodland native Americans were forced west on the Trail of Tears.
       
     

Site of Turkeytown, Cherokee County, Alabama, 2017

Established some time prior to 1770, Turkeytown was one of the most important Cherokee cities in the region. Following his victory over the Muscogee Creek, General Andrew Jackson visited his Cherokee allies at Turkeytown in 1816 for a Council of the Cherokee, Creek, and Chickasaw to negotiate boundaries and ratify a peace treaty as Alabama opened to white settlers. At the council the Cherokee ceded a large portion of their ancestral lands in north-central Alabama to the US government and agreed to the building of roads throughout their domain, including construction of the Alabama Road over the ancient hunting and trading paths that once ran east to Rome, Georgia. Soon after the treaty the Eastern Woodland native Americans were forced west on the Trail of Tears.

  Moundville, Hale County, Alabama,  2017  Moundville was the political and ceremonial center of a Mississippian chiefdom on the Black Warrior River in west Alabama between the 11th and 15th centuries. More than 10,000 people lived at and around the massive 300 acre site, which featured more than 30 earth mounds used for civic and religious purposes, with the layout of the mounds likely placed in cosmological symbolic order and regarded by Mississippian peoples as the doorway to the afterlife. While the site stood as the second largest city in North America for generations, it was mysteriously abandoned by the time Europeans began exploring the area in the 16th century.
       
     

Moundville, Hale County, Alabama, 2017

Moundville was the political and ceremonial center of a Mississippian chiefdom on the Black Warrior River in west Alabama between the 11th and 15th centuries. More than 10,000 people lived at and around the massive 300 acre site, which featured more than 30 earth mounds used for civic and religious purposes, with the layout of the mounds likely placed in cosmological symbolic order and regarded by Mississippian peoples as the doorway to the afterlife. While the site stood as the second largest city in North America for generations, it was mysteriously abandoned by the time Europeans began exploring the area in the 16th century.

  Ten Islands, St. Claire County, Alabama,  2017  In July of 1540 DeSoto and his men forded the Coosa River near this point, moving from the Native American city of Coste to nearby Tali. In tow were native slaves, forced to accompany the Spaniards and carry their supplies. Some 250 years after DeSoto's visit, the site became home to General Andrew Jackson's Fort Strother, from which he began his campaign against Red Stick Muskogee Creeks during the Creek wars in 1812. In this photograph, divergent paths lead to ruins of a river lock, which when constructed in the 1880's opened an additional 25 miles of the Coosa to commercial shipping. Today the river and nearby land is controlled by the Alabama Power Co. Area locals report that buckets full of points and stone tools can be drudged from the river when the water is low.
       
     

Ten Islands, St. Claire County, Alabama, 2017

In July of 1540 DeSoto and his men forded the Coosa River near this point, moving from the Native American city of Coste to nearby Tali. In tow were native slaves, forced to accompany the Spaniards and carry their supplies. Some 250 years after DeSoto's visit, the site became home to General Andrew Jackson's Fort Strother, from which he began his campaign against Red Stick Muskogee Creeks during the Creek wars in 1812. In this photograph, divergent paths lead to ruins of a river lock, which when constructed in the 1880's opened an additional 25 miles of the Coosa to commercial shipping. Today the river and nearby land is controlled by the Alabama Power Co. Area locals report that buckets full of points and stone tools can be drudged from the river when the water is low.

  Coosa River, Cherokee County, Alabama, 2017
       
     

Coosa River, Cherokee County, Alabama, 2017

  Near Socopatoy, Coosa County, Alabama,  2017  Although Creek Indians retained the territory around what is today known as Socopatoy Creek following the Creek Wars, whites began settling in the area before Alabama achieved statehood. In the early 19th century Socopatoy included a Native American village, frontier fort, and pioneer town. Today the area is empty, as the once thriving town was reduced to a handful of structures in the early 20th century; most remaining structures were razed in 1979 for the rerouting of US Hwy 280.
       
     

Near Socopatoy, Coosa County, Alabama, 2017

Although Creek Indians retained the territory around what is today known as Socopatoy Creek following the Creek Wars, whites began settling in the area before Alabama achieved statehood. In the early 19th century Socopatoy included a Native American village, frontier fort, and pioneer town. Today the area is empty, as the once thriving town was reduced to a handful of structures in the early 20th century; most remaining structures were razed in 1979 for the rerouting of US Hwy 280.

  Coosa County, Alabama,  2017  Near the purported home of Choak-Chart-Hadjo, renowned Creek chief known to white settlers as "Redmouth."
       
     

Coosa County, Alabama, 2017

Near the purported home of Choak-Chart-Hadjo, renowned Creek chief known to white settlers as "Redmouth."

  Tallaseehatchee Creek, Calhoun County, Alabama,  2017
       
     

Tallaseehatchee Creek, Calhoun County, Alabama, 2017

  Unnamed island on the Coosa River, Cherokee County, Alabama,  2017  Near this site stood the great Native American city of Chiaha, where in 1540 DeSoto stood on the banks of the river and marveled at "the beauty and richness of the land" and was warmly welcomed by a soon to be occupied and enslaved people.   
       
     

Unnamed island on the Coosa River, Cherokee County, Alabama, 2017

Near this site stood the great Native American city of Chiaha, where in 1540 DeSoto stood on the banks of the river and marveled at "the beauty and richness of the land" and was warmly welcomed by a soon to be occupied and enslaved people.

 

  Cherokee Rock Village, Cherokee County, Alabama,  2017  Cherokee Rock Village was home to Native Americans almost continuously from 8000 BC until 1838, when the resident Cherokee and Creek Indians were forcibly removed by the Indian Removal Act. The ancient site was believed to be of religious and ceremonial importance, as it was located along an ancient Native American trail that became a starting point for the Trail of Tears and later a route for white settlers. The trail also was used by both northern and southern troops during the Civil War and is now known as Lookout Mountain Trail.   
       
     

Cherokee Rock Village, Cherokee County, Alabama, 2017

Cherokee Rock Village was home to Native Americans almost continuously from 8000 BC until 1838, when the resident Cherokee and Creek Indians were forcibly removed by the Indian Removal Act. The ancient site was believed to be of religious and ceremonial importance, as it was located along an ancient Native American trail that became a starting point for the Trail of Tears and later a route for white settlers. The trail also was used by both northern and southern troops during the Civil War and is now known as Lookout Mountain Trail.

 

  Tohopeka, Horseshoe Bend National Military Park, Tallapoosa County, Alabama,  2017  At this site of the Red Stick village of Tohopeka, Cherokee and Lower Creek allied with Andrew Jackson swam across the Tallapoosa River, stole Red Stick canoes, and ferried their own warriors to attack and burn the village during the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. The flanking maneuver allowed Jackson to ultimately defeat the Upper Creek, leaving nearly 800 Red Sticks dead and more than 300 women and children captured. Those who fought reported that the Tallapoosa ran red with blood; the battle was the single largest defeat of Native American people in nearly 300 years of conflict with European settlers. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend effectively ended the Creek War and led to the loss of 23 million acres of ancestral Muscogee land. The treaty was dictated by Jackson, who after the Creek War would be promoted to Major General and later become president. His portrait currently hangs over the Resolute Desk in Donald Trump's Oval Office.
       
     

Tohopeka, Horseshoe Bend National Military Park, Tallapoosa County, Alabama, 2017

At this site of the Red Stick village of Tohopeka, Cherokee and Lower Creek allied with Andrew Jackson swam across the Tallapoosa River, stole Red Stick canoes, and ferried their own warriors to attack and burn the village during the Battle of Horseshoe Bend. The flanking maneuver allowed Jackson to ultimately defeat the Upper Creek, leaving nearly 800 Red Sticks dead and more than 300 women and children captured. Those who fought reported that the Tallapoosa ran red with blood; the battle was the single largest defeat of Native American people in nearly 300 years of conflict with European settlers. The Battle of Horseshoe Bend effectively ended the Creek War and led to the loss of 23 million acres of ancestral Muscogee land. The treaty was dictated by Jackson, who after the Creek War would be promoted to Major General and later become president. His portrait currently hangs over the Resolute Desk in Donald Trump's Oval Office.